Question 1

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SOC 100 MIDTERM EXAM PART 1

Question

Question 1

Patterned social arrangements that have an enabling or constraining effect on agency are referred to as:

 

Structure

 

Institutions

 

Free will

 

Socialization

Question 2

_____ is considered the first female sociologist and argued that injustices such as slavery and women’s inequality stunted a society’s moral development.

 

Auguste Comte

 

Émile Durkheim

 

Karl Marx

 

Harriet Martineau

Question 3

Formal organizations characterized by written rules, hierarchical authority, and a paid staff, intended to promote organizational efficiency, are referred to as:

 

Institutions

 

Universities

 

Bureaucracies

 

Government

Question 4

The relationship between agency and structure is _____, as ______.

 

one-sided, agency influences structure

 

one-sided, structure enables or constrains agency

 

reciprocal, they both have an effect on one another

 

nonexistent, there is no relationship between the two

Question 5

Accepted social behaviors and beliefs are referred to as:

 

Norms

 

Culture

 

Social status

 

Values

Question 6

The bonds that unite the members of a social group is referred to as:

 

Culture

 

Social solidarity

 

Norms

 

Societal unity

Question 7

_____ believed that nearly all known societies are characterized by some system of division by economic class, which results in conflict as classes compete for wealth, power, and resources.

 

Auguste Comte

 

Émile Durkheim

 

Karl Marx

 

Harriet Martineau

Question 8

The ability to evaluate claims about truth by using reason and evidence is referred to as:

 

Critical thinking

 

Sociological imagination

 

Scientific reasoning

 

Logical thought

Question 9

The ability of individuals and groups to exercise free will and to make social change is referred to as:

 

Structure

 

Agency

 

Free choice

 

Individualism

Question 10

A researcher finds that as income increases, square footage of respondent’s home also increases. This is an example of:

 

Positive correlation

 

Positive causation

 

Negative correlation

 

Increasatory relationship

Question 11

A variable is defined as:

 

The description of a relationship

 

A phenomena that is constantly changing

 

A term used to summarize a set of phenomena

 

A concept that can take on two or more possible values

Question 12

A _____ relationship is one in which one variable is the cause of another variable.

 

Correlated

 

Causal

 

Positive

 

Statistical

Question 13

The degree to which two or more variables are associated with one another is referred to as:

 

Causation

 

Statistical relationship

 

Correlation

 

Frequency

Question 14

_____ reasoning starts from specific data and tries to identify larger patterns from which to derive more general theories.

 

Logical

 

Inductive

 

Ground-level

 

Deductive

Question 15

A researcher finds that as years spent driving increases, the number of accidents decreases. This is an example of:

 

Negative causation

 

Negative correlation

 

Positive correlation

 

Decreasing relationship

Question 16

The term used to summarize a set of phenomena is:

 

Definition

 

Concept

 

Operationalization

 

Pattern

Question 17

The repetition of a previous study using a different sample or population to verify or refute the original findings is referred to as:

 

Verification

 

Replication

 

Validation

 

Reliability

Question 18

A culture that exists together with a dominant culture but differs from it in some important respects is referred to as:

 

Ethnicity

 

Subculture

 

Counterculture

 

Subgroup

Question 19

The ability of a local culture to absorb outside influences that fit in and enrich their culture while resisting those that are alien is known as:

 

Staying power

 

Grobalization

 

Glocalization

 

Globalization

Question 20

The beliefs, norms, behaviors, and products common to the members of a particular group are referred to as:

 

Ethnicity

 

Culture

 

Society

 

Class

Question 21

Powerful mores, the violation of which is considered serious and even unthinkable, are referred to as:

 

Criminal laws

 

Commandments

 

Taboos

 

Fundamental values

Question 22

Cultural representations of social realities are referred to as:

 

Images

 

Symbols

 

Trademarks

 

Ethnographies

Question 23

The worldview whereby we judge other cultures by the standards of our own is referred to as:

 

Patriotism

 

Nationalism

 

Ethnocentrism

 

Multiculturalism

Question 24

Particular ideas that people accept as true are referred to as:

 

Religion

 

Cultural norms

 

Values

 

Beliefs

Question 25

Abstract and general standards in society that define ideal principles such as right and wrong are referred to as:

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